12 Oct 2005

In Defence of The Right to Offend

Singapore is not a free and open society. It is the blatant and unapologetic nature of the admittance of such a situation that still shocks. It can be uttered by Singaporean politicians and judges with the clear knowledge that such a situation will be tolerated/accepted/unchallenged by the population. They control the horizontal and the vertical and will do so, according to Lee Hsieng Loong, for the next 20 years.

The present situation regarding the four bloggers, two of whom have been sentenced with two now waiting to hear of their fate, reminded me of a few articles posted a few months ago. The first was posted in February 2005, and the second was posted in the same month. In fact it was something Judge Magnus said.

“The right of one person’s freedom of expression must always be balanced by the right of another’s freedom from offence.”Judge Magnus


I have been searching in vain to find where the 'Right to Freedom from Offence' is enshrined. Now I am referring to the word 'offence' not harm or the threat of harm or any variation. Can someone point me to the section either in the Singaporean Constitution or the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights, that defends the "Right to Freedom From Offence"? Maybe Judge Magnus could help me out.

Judge Magnus seems to be confirming the lack of liberal democracy in Singapore that Lee Hsien Loong confirmed in a recent speech. The judicary is also operating along the same 'non-liberal' policies. A case of the executive, judiciary and legislature reading from the same page to put it nicely.

The bloggers were sentenced for being racist and from what I have been reading they have also been lumped in with criticisms of religion and certain religious practices.

As far as I am concerned there is no space for racism but being anti-religious is another matter. A complicated matter, but one that does not simply fall under the 'racist' banner.

SingaporeClassics covers the legal angles of the recent sentences given in the court.

Democracy is not a tea party.

The idea that any kind of free society can be constructed in which people will never be offended or insulted is absurd. So too is the notion that people should have the right to call on the law to defend them against being offended or insulted. A fundamental decision needs to be made: do we want to live in a free society or not? Democracy is not a tea party where people sit around making polite conversation. In democracies people get extremely upset with each other. They argue vehemently against each other’s positions. (But they don’t shoot.)Salman Rushdie



Defend the right to be offended

The moment you say that any idea system is sacred, whether it’s a religious belief system or a secular ideology, the moment you declare a set of ideas to be immune from criticism, satire, derision, or contempt, freedom of thought becomes impossible. Salman Rushdie


I have decided to post the entire article from OpenDemocracy in the hope that people will actually read it.

Defend the right to be offended
Salman Rushdie
7 - 2 - 2005


“The moment you declare a set of ideas to be immune from criticism, satire, derision, or contempt, freedom of thought becomes impossible.” Salman Rushdie sounds the call for a new enlightenment.


I was in Washington just before the Iraq war began in March 2003 and was invited to speak to groups of senators from both parties. The most obvious distinction between the Democrats and the Republicans was that the Republicans used exclusively religious language. They discussed why they hadn’t seen each other at a certain prayer meeting. One senator said to me, in tones of genuine horror, that what he disliked most about Osama bin Laden was that he called America a Godless country. He said: “How can he call us Godless? We’re incredibly God-fearing!”

I said: “Well, senator, I suppose he doesn’t think so.” But his outrage at being presented as un-Godly was undeniably sincere. He meant business. And the increasing power of God-fearing America – of the Christian coalition, Mel Gibson, The Passion of the Christ variety – subsequently determined the result of the November 2004 presidential election.

Now here in Britain I discover another kind of Anschluss of liberal values in the face of resurgent religious demands. One of its results is the proposal by Tony Blair’s government – under the auspices of its Serious and Organised Crime and Police Bill – to introduce a ban on the “incitement to hatred on religious grounds”.

The pressure of members of English PEN has wrested a late concession from the government, which has renamed the proposed offence “hatred against persons on racial or religious grounds”. But the danger the legislation carries for freedom of speech, while diminished, remain. It seems we need to fight the battle for the Enlightenment all over again in Europe as well as in the United States.

That battle was about the church’s desire to place limits on thought. The Enlightenment wasn’t a battle against the state but against the church. Diderot’s novel La Religieuse (1760), with its portrayal of nuns and their behaviour, was deliberately blasphemous: it challenged religious authority, with its indexes and inquisitions, on what it was possible to say. Most of our contemporary ideas about freedom of speech and imagination come from the Enlightenment. We may have thought the battle won. If we aren’t careful, it is about to be “un-won”.

Offence and insult are part of everyday life for people in Britain. All you have to do is open a daily paper and there’s plenty to offend. Or you can walk into the religious books section of a bookshop and discover you’re damned to various kinds of eternal hellfire, which is certainly insulting, not to say overheated.

The idea that any kind of free society can be constructed in which people will never be offended or insulted is absurd. So too is the notion that people should have the right to call on the law to defend them against being offended or insulted. A fundamental decision needs to be made: do we want to live in a free society or not? Democracy is not a tea party where people sit around making polite conversation. In democracies people get extremely upset with each other. They argue vehemently against each other’s positions. (But they don’t shoot.)

At Cambridge University I was taught a laudable method of argument: you never personalise, but you have absolutely no respect for people’s opinions. You are never rude to the person, but you can be savagely rude about what the person thinks. That seems to me a crucial distinction: people must be protected from discrimination by virtue of their race, but you cannot ring-fence their ideas. The moment you say that any idea system is sacred, whether it’s a religious belief system or a secular ideology, the moment you declare a set of ideas to be immune from criticism, satire, derision, or contempt, freedom of thought becomes impossible.

Now, with its proposed law “to prevent hatred being stirred up against people targeted because of their religious beliefs”, the current British government has set out to create that impossibility. Privately its architects will tell you the law is designed to please “the Muslims”. But which Muslims, when and on what day?

The ability of this law to protect “the Muslims” seems to me arguable. It is entirely possible that instead it will be used against Muslims before it’s used against anyone else. There are identifiable racist and right-wing groups in this country who would argue that Muslims are the ones inciting religious hatred, and these groups will use, or try to use, this law.

There is no question that there also are Muslim leaders who are anxious to prosecute – for example – The Satanic Verses, and will try to do so if this law is passed. So this law will unleash some major expressions of intolerance.

Already, at a theatre in England’s second-largest city Birmingham, rioting Sikhs have forced the closure of a play set in a Sikh temple by a young woman writer of Sikh origin, Gurpreet Kaur Bhatti – and the government has said nothing to criticise what was effectively criminal action. The novelist Hanif Kureishi made one of the best comments about the affair, when he noted that the theatre where Bezhti (“Dishonour”) had been performed was a temple, too. Evangelical Christians caught on quickly and protested against the BBC’s screening of Jerry Springer – The Opera.

The response of many British writers on this issue has revealed striking failures of perception. I took issue with Ian Jack, editor of the respected literary magazine Granta, when he said that he was happy to support the British police when they defended Rupert Murdoch’s printing plant in Wapping, London, from striking print-workers in 1986, but did not think that the Birmingham theatre and its play should be protected from the threatening Sikhs. Forgive me for not seeing the logic of the principle of “self-restraint”. It seems to me to be a liberal failure to say that even though we don’t understand what is upsetting those who say they are offended, we shouldn’t upset them. That’s condescension. That’s saying “you can have your little religion over there in the corner and we won’t fool with you.”

What this kind of attitude ultimately does, and what the government’s law will do – even with the late amendment conceded thanks to the persuasive advocacy of English PEN – is to undermine a principle of free expression which affects everyone in Britain, religious or not. If we cannot have open discourse about the ideas by which we live, then we are straitjacketing ourselves. This is the starting-point of the Enlightenment.

It does matter. People have the fundamental right to take an argument to the point where somebody is offended by what they say. It’s no trick to support the free speech of somebody you agree with or to whose opinion you are indifferent. The defence of free speech begins at the point when people say something you can’t stand. If you can’t defend their right to say it, then you don’t believe in free speech. You only believe in free speech as long as it doesn’t get up your nose. But free speech does get up people’s noses. Friedrich Nietzsche called Christianity “the one great curse” and “the one immortal blemish on mankind”. Would he now be prosecuted?

There is a long tradition of irreverent, raw, and critical remarks about religion in Britain. From eminent thinkers to the country’s favourite comedians like Rowan Atkinson in the BBC comedy Blackadder muttering “Bad weather is God’s way of telling us we should burn more Catholics.” Even if the government doesn’t think that such remarks will find their way into court prosecutions, the very possibility that they might, at the discretion of the state’s senior legal officer, the attorney-general, will be enough to bring down the curtains of self- and corporate censorship.

It will be a sad day if what remains a bad law comes into effect in Britain. If it does, it will be important to disobey it and have it tested in the courts, which one hopes will recognise its manifest absurdity.

The way things are done in Britain often makes them seem local, even technical, rather than a matter of principle. Government spokesmen in London justify their actions in terms of the need to “close (an) unacceptable loophole” rather than on the need to be God-fearing, or by claiming that this is a God-fearing country. But the example set by the United Kingdom parliament on this issue is a signal to the world. It should not be that freedom of thought and speech and of the imagination can be closed down by bigots.


The above is an abbreviated version of a speech that Salman Rushdie gave at English Pen.

4 comments:

clyde said...

Im guessing Judge Magnus, like a lot of politicians, is spewing out and inventing his own terminology. Which is deeply worrying for someone such as a judge.

People say that freedom of expression has nothing to do with the persecution of the racist bloggers. But it does. If the Govt feels that 3 racist bloggers are able to rip a hole in the "fabric of society" (quoting PM Lee), what should stop them from using the Sedition Act against websites such as Singabloodypore or any politically sensitive website. The paranoid reaction to the 4 silent protesters and ongoing investigation into Martyn See's film already hint at their tolerance for such outspoken thoughts. As soci says, why is racism treated with double standards in contrast with anti-religion?

I maintain that obviously racism is wrong. But when it comes to the law of a free society, no one should be guilty of a thought-crime. I don't see this law as being any less invasive as that which dictates oral sex. Racism should only be racist in the eyes of the law when one's human/civil rights are impinged on or is publicly humiliated. But obviously the govt of Singapore has placed 3 bloggers as being more "seditious" than companies which employ mandarin-speaking only personnel. I wonder which makes a citizen feel more disaffectionate for his/her own country...hmm.

A truly mature society will understand that the internet comes with many websites that will be deemed offensive to different groups. Readers also hold an equal responsibility to what they view. If someone's comments offends you, you are free to hit the Back button. Unfortunately, PM Lee was able to demonstrate his polished speech skills as a politician by placing the racist bloggers within the context of global terrorism, implying that they pose as much a threat as radical preachers and terrorist "masterminds" and would seemingly rip a hole in the fabric of society overnight.

- said...

Putting aside the fact that I agree with Rushdie quite a bit, this liberal stance is not going to buy its way into the current circumtances.

The most persuasive basis for any argument for freedom of speech in Singapore today is that freedom of speech is tied inextricably with democracy. Since we assume we are a democracy at least - the basis is secured. This argument proceeds that freedom of speech allows us to make an informed choice when we are casting our votes. The Wee Commission reports reiterates this.

But from this basis, there is greater reason to protect speech which is critical about policy than from racist speech which cannot be said to be intricably linked to democracy. This is especially when we are a multi-racial democractic society. Racist speech can be seen as a form of oppression of the minority which shouts over minority voices. Freedom of speech with the democractic basis will not permit that.

I hope you are with me so far. Remember this is not my arguments - this are just arguments I think For the freedom of speech the state will/has to buy if we are to assume we are a democracy.

------

However from this basis - Freedom from Offence exists in but not under the public disorder exemption under the constitution.

It is a legal right not a constitutional one.

But I do not think Magnus was even referring to the legal right. Anyhow,

the Law clearly provide for restriction on free speech where speech is offensive to reasonable people. It is in order also to protect the young and the vulnerable e.t.c.

Hence there is a ban on pornography, obsence behaviour, films under the prohibited list in the flims act, the books that are banned, and the 100 internet sites that are banned e.t.c.

I am not saying I agree for all of that - but I am saying there is basis for the use of the offence principle where "public morality" is concerned - another well recognised exemption to the constitutional freedom.

I will not bore you with the legal details how courts have looked at how the offence principle is applied in all the above examples or bore you with the easons why, in my opinion, such censorship should be done away with.

On the case at Hand, I ignored offence above because they often are used under the public morality exception provided for in the constitution. The section of the Sedition Act as I read it should probably be viewed under the public disorder exemption where right against offence has yet to come in.

The history of the Sedition Act - derived from the common law offence of Seditious Libel might have had traces of "offence" but even if it so - so there is some "ambit" of argument - not that anybody who argues for a reading of offence has even considered that, so i will not pursue that point..

anyhow thanks for highlighting Rushdie.

It might come in when we are dealing with the Flims Act, which is a different matrix altogehter.

All i am saying, long winded me, is there is such a basis of offence in Singapore and many other countries.

Anonymous said...

sediton act is used to terrorise the honest ,hardworking singaporeans to force them to live in fear ,,, ISD is a terrorist organisation and can also be called as organized crime in singapore ... torture and beatings are common in sinapore jail..

Anonymous said...

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